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The more coins and silver they have on their clothes, that's the representation of their political power and wealth.

Hmong Culture & History / Baidu Wiki on Hmong History
« on: January 15, 2022, 03:40:35 PM »
The Miao people are a nation with excellent traditional culture. The Miao people once had a long primitive society. The situation of taking leaves as clothes, caves or tree nests as home, and female leaders is reflected in ancient songs of the Miao nationality. [1] From the kinship title system in some areas, we can also see the evolution of the transition from matriarchal to patriarchal, from consanguinity to dual marriage, which reflects the considerable primitive social history of the Miao people.


In ancient Chinese classics, there have long been records about the ancestors of the Miao people. The ancestors of the Miao people can be traced back to the Chiyou Jiuli tribe 5,000 years ago. After the Zhuolu War, Chiyou was defeated and killed, and the tribe moved south. Later, the ancestors of the Miao nationality experienced countless migrations of varying scales.
One of the Miao people went to Guangxi and Hunan; one went to Guizhou and Yunnan, and the other stayed in the border area of Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan and Guizhou. [2]
The population distribution of the Miao nationality is characterized by multi-mountain, multi-center large-scale residential, the center of the mountainous area is concentrated, surrounded by flower arrangement with other ethnic groups, and most of the pieces are connected. [2]
According to historical records and legends, the ancestors of the Miao nationality in the Yin and Zhou Dynasties have lived in the Qingjiang River Basin and Dongting Lake in Hunan Province. During the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, there were Miao ancestors' activities in Bashu, Yelang and Jingzhou.

Qin and Han Dynasties

During the Qin and Han dynasties, most of the Miao ancestors were distributed in Wuling County, Yuke County, Yueyu County, Ba County, Nanjun and other areas, and a small number of them continued to migrate to the Liujiang River Basin, the capital of southeast Guizhou. Subsequently, due to war, famine, epidemic diseases, dense fertility, loss of farmland and other reasons, continuous migration.
At the same time, the introductor of ironware and production technology in the Central Plains has promoted the development of the Miao economy. The Miao ancestors in Wuxi area have begun to engage in agricultural production, mastered the spinning and dyeing technology of wood skin and dyeing grass, and there was a product exchange; however, the clan leaders are on an equal footing with the people, and their productivity level is low, and they are still in the primitive social stage.

Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties

During the Wei, Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties, due to the continuous development of productive forces, the original society of the Miao nationality began to gradually disintegrate. The clan commune originally composed of blood ties has gradually developed into a rural commune with geographical relations. During the Tang and Song Dynasties, the Miao people gradually entered the class society, and the leaders of rural communes had land control. The feudal economy of the Han nationality promoted the formation and development of the Miao feudal social lord economy through frequent contact between Han, Miao and other ethnic groups. Some "Barbarian Chiefs" and "Barbarian Handsome" have become hereditary "local officials" with a large amount of land. The Miao people in these "local officials" have become serfs (called "fields"), cultivating the land of the lord, paying rents and servicing unpaid labor, and having to participate in armed fighting between the lords to work for them.

Yuan and Ming dynasties

During the Yuan and Ming dynasties, the feudal lord economy in the Miao nationality area had developed considerably. In the fifteenth year of Hongzhi (1502), the central government of the Ming Dynasty began to implement "reforming land and returning to flow" in Chengbu Miao District, Hunan Province, and other regions began to dispatch drifting officials. The rise of the landlord system in Miao areas has weakened the toast regime based on the lord system. The feudal dynasty limited the power of the toast system, which made the toast system decline. By the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, some other Miao areas began to change their soil and return to the flow, so that the landlord economy could develop smoothly. However, the Laer Mountains in western Hunan, the Leigong Mountains in southeast Guizhou and the ancient prefecture Mountains are still in the state of "no emperor and no affiliation", which are collectively called "birth worlds" by feudal dynasties. Its social development is still at the end of the rural commune.

Qing Dynasty

During the Yongzheng period of the Qing Dynasty, the large-scale "reformation of soil and return" played a great role in promoting the collapse of feudal lords and the development of landlords' economies. However, the military conquest of the "life world" caused a large number of casualties among the Miao people and seriously damaged the local productive forces. With the development of feudal landlord economy, land mergers and wealth concentration are increasing day by day. During the reign of Qianlong, there were large landlords with one or two thousand stone valleys in western Hunan, and by the time of Jiaqing, there were seven or eight thousand big landlords of stone valleys. At this time, feudal lordship basically disappeared.
After the Opium War in 1840, the Miao people fought arduously with other ethnic groups for the sake of national independence and liberation, and made contributions during the old democratic revolution and the new democratic revolution.

after the Qing Dynasty

After 1949, after democratic reform and socialist transformation, the Miao ethnic region implemented regional ethnic autonomy.
After 50 years of socialist revolution and construction, great changes have taken place in Miao society, and its social and historical process has been in the primary stage of socialism.

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